The acronym STP refers to the Spanning Tree Protocol. STP is implemented to lessen the amount of layer 2 loops. All manageable switches will have STP enabled and operating by default.
Some more links are added to the network in order to achieve a decent network architecture and to guarantee that the network will be available (redundancy). In the event that one of the active links fails, the traffic will be redirected to the redundant links. It indicates that these links are used for the purpose of backup. Redundancy in a network refers to the process of providing additional links to the system.
It is common knowledge that every aspect of life has both positive and negative aspects. In the same way, while redundant links are useful for the purpose of backup, they also produce layer 2 loops. STP is utilized as a means of avoiding these loops. STP makes it possible for the network design to incorporate redundancy without triggering any additional issues (loops).
The blocking state that is imposed on redundant ports by STP serves to prevent layer 2 loops. These additional links serve as a backup and are able to enter a forwarding state in the event that one of the active interfaces becomes inoperable.
Normal behavior should be expected from an interface that is currently forwarding. They both send and receive the typical amount of traffic. While the interface is in blocking mode, only BPDU messages can be sent and received (Bridge Protocol data units).
STP creates a single path between each point by allowing the user to choose which ports are operating in the forward mode and which are operating in the blocking mode. Loops at layer 2 can be avoided this way thanks to STP.
Why do we need STP in Networking?
- In order to calm the broadcast storm.
- Instability in the MAC table occurs when frames with the same source MAC arrive on separate ports. This causes the MAC table to continually updating.
- Because of the loops, there are several copies of the frame that make it to the destination.
How Does Root Bridge gets Elected?
The bridge-ID is what switches use to decide which bridge is the root bridge. There are two elements that make up Bridge-ID. The first is the bridge priority, and the second is the MAC address. The network administrator will choose as the root bridge the switch that has the lowest bridge-ID. The priority field is compared first, and if that doesn’t break the tie, the MAC addresses are looked at.
- EVERY STP-enabled switch communicates with every other switch by sending a Hello BPDU message.
- Before sending the next BPDU message, the switch compares its own BID with the BID it has received (which is contained within the BPDU message). If the received BPDU has a lower BID, the switch stops promoting itself.
- The same procedure is carried out multiple times, and the switch with the lowest BID becomes the root bridge.
Frequently Asked Questions about STP
- What is Spanning Tree Protocol?
The STP is a protocol that was developed with the intention of making IP traffic management more effective.
Cisco was the company that came up with the STP protocol, and it was initially used in the year 1998. It provides a mechanism for network devices to communicate with each other about which paths are accessible, which ones are crowded, and how to avoid congested paths. It is used for IP traffic management, and it gives a way to manage IP traffic.
- How Does Spanning Tree Protocol Work?
The term “spanning tree protocol” refers to a networking protocol that guarantees that a spanned local area network does not contain any loops.
It is a protocol that prevents duplicate or superfluous channels over the network in order to ensure that any bridged local area network has a topology that is free of network loops. This is accomplished through the construction of a spanning tree inside of the physical network.
- How STP differs from RSTP?
“Spanning Tree Protocol” (STP) and “Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol” (RSTP) are both abbreviations for the same protocol. On a network, STP is a standard that is implemented to stop broadcast storms and prevent loops from occurring. By blocking redundant channels and choosing just one of those paths to convey data, it stops the network from getting overloaded and prevents congestion.
RSTP is an upgrade to STP that enables it to recover more quickly after a link failure or when new devices are introduced to a network. This is possible thanks to RSTP’s ability to reroute traffic around failed links. This protocol was developed with the goal of making it quicker than the STP that was originally used.
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